ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values

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athomas236; I have been heavily involved with evaluating Grade 91 piping in our HRSG units across the US.First off,portable hardness testing forThrough extensive hardness testing and microscopy,I would not accept hardness values in the base metal below 190 BHN or equivalent without additioGentlemen,Thank you both for your advice.The hardness test procedure used is summarised below 1. Personnel shall have a working knowledge of aathomas236,As metengr stated one of the keys to hardness testing of P91 is to assure removal of the decarburized layer.Initial removal of approxistanweld,Thank you for reminding me of metengr's comment.Is there a way of detecting that the decarburized layer has been removed? Best regards,athomas236 If the hardness readings indicate softness (below minimum range) continue to remove material by selective grinding and obtain additionalmetengr,Thank you again.I have looked at the contractor's procedure for hardness testing and it makes no mention of removing the decarburized layathomas236 Are you also including in your review the other QC items that are used to indicate proper P91 weld and hot-bend fab procedures? The proathomas236; Typically,I have seen hardness readings in the decarb layer as low as 170 VH.Once we removed the decarb material for hardness testingRecommended Hardness for A-335 P91 MaterialJun 18,2008Hardness Test Requirement for P91 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;Recently,significant attentions have been paid to use and abuse of P91 and P92 heat resistant steels in the related industries,especially to that of P91 ,,due to an evident reduction of hardness (usually lower or much lower than the index value required by the relevant ASME or ASTM standard for the as-received P91 components) after a Welding A335-P91 Pipe/A182 F91 ForgingsJan 25,20101-1.5% Cr to P91 WPS Hardness limitatJul 07,2003See more resultsUse and Abuse of P91 and P92 Steels - Squarespace

Hardness measurements on replicas areas showed values that were well below the minimum expected for this type of steel. Because of the lengthy delivery times for valves (8-10 months),the insertion of two temporary replacement logs (22,24 mm thick,P91) was effected.The two removed valves were subjected to metallographic investigation inWelding A335-P91 Pipe/A182 F91 ForgingsJan 25,2010 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;I have heard that the ASME Sec II code committee is discussing putting a table in ASME Sec II Part A for min.and max.hardness values for chrome material but has not to date.It has been generally accepted that 190 HB min.and 248 HB max are acceptable ranges.Min.ultamate tensile for P91 is 85000.That eqautes to about 174 HB.Jim

Weld Hardness Study of P91 Welded Pipes with Post Weld

It is perceived that the scattered and higher hardness values,more than 250HB in 2 P91 pipes in the weld metal and in the heat affected zones,can be brought into the lower required level,less than 250HB,with an effective post weld heat treatment at 760 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#176;C for 2hrs.It is concluded that PWHT is the most effective way of relieving the Weld Hardness Study of P91 Welded Pipes with Post Weld It is perceived that the scattered and higher hardness values,more than 250HB in 2 P91 pipes in the weld metal and in the heat affected zones,can be brought into the lower required level,less than 250HB,with an effective post weld heat treatment at 760 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#176;C for 2hrs.It is concluded that PWHT is the most effective way of relieving the Use and Abuse of P91 and P92 Steels - SquarespaceHardness measurements on replicas areas showed values that were well below the minimum expected for this type of steel. Because of the lengthy delivery times for valves (8-10 months),the insertion of two temporary replacement logs (22,24 mm thick,P91) was effected.The two removed valves were subjected to metallographic investigation in

There are a number of excellent references available that give typical mechanical properties (including hardness) for all structural alloys (steel,TVP,Thanks for the help,but I have already looked into those areas,my company subscribes to all of them.I am still not able to find a high andThe Brinell hardness of a material has a linear relation to the ultimate strength of the part. I don't know the exact equation,but if you know thFor carbon low alloy steel the ultimate strength in psi is roughly 500 times the brinell.I don't think that holds true for other alloys.I've foSAE J417 gives approximate tensile strength values for various the various hardness numbers. So,based on the minimum tensile strength requirementNACE incidates that the maximum hardness for P91 is 248BHN.However read artciles which allows maximum hardness value of 275BHN.Lower hardness cSA-335 par 9.3 shows max allowable hardness to be 250HBIn some cases specifications do set hardness limits. But you need to remember that hardness is a very inaccurate indication of strength and microsFor applications requiring piping and boiler components,the range of hardness for Grade P91 is 200-250 BHN.This hardness range should only be useHardness Limit of P9 heater tubes

Dec 05,2010 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;ashfaqanwer,the main problem is ASME does not help much with hardness values.B31.3 would tell you 241 HB Max for your material.B31.3 would tell you 241 HB Max for your material.ASTM will say 250 Max for P91 which is a P9 modified,but does not give a value for P9.The effect of phase parameter variation on hardness of P91 Jan 15,2018 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;Recently,significant attentions have been paid to use and abuse of P91 and P92 heat resistant steels in the related industries,especially to that of P91 ,,due to an evident reduction of hardness (usually lower or much lower than the index value required by the relevant ASME or ASTM standard for the as-received P91 components) after a Study on the applicability of the measurements of Values derived from the major loop,such as coercivity,permeability and hysteresis loss,can be used to quantify the magnetic hardness of a material,which in turn is indicative of material

Study on the applicability of the measurements of

Values derived from the major loop,such as coercivity,permeability and hysteresis loss,can be used to quantify the magnetic hardness of a material,which in turn is indicative of material Some results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement.For more information,please see here.Previous123456NextP91 and Beyond - Lincoln ElectricASME/AWS specifications are ap-proved for using P91 base material and ifferences in hardness between the base metal,weld metal,and HAZ for a P91 weldment are Fig.2 103 h creep rupture values of T/P22,T/P23,T/P24,and T/P91 as a function of temperature.(Kimura/Prager,Refs.1315).Some results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement.For more information,please see here.12345NextP91 and Beyond - Lincoln ElectricASME/AWS specifications are ap-proved for using P91 base material and ifferences in hardness between the base metal,weld metal,and HAZ for a P91 weldment are Fig.2 103 h creep rupture values of T/P22,T/P23,T/P24,and T/P91 as a function of temperature.(Kimura/Prager,Refs.1315).

Some results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement.For more information,please see here.Rockwell Hardness - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

G.Sundararajan,M.Roy,in Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Technology,2001.1.1 Rockwell Hardness Testing.In a Rockwell hardness test,initially a minor load of 10 N is applied and the zero datum position is established.The major load (60,100,or 150 N) is then applied for a specific period (a few seconds) and removed,leaving the minor load applied.People also askWhat should be the upper hardness limit of P9 material?What should be the upper hardness limit of P9 material?What should be the upper hardness limit of P9 material when used as heater tubes.Hardness does increase during operation form its base line value (new tube hardness - 220 BHN) but what should be the upper limit where one may plan for replacement of tubes on the basis of increased hardness.By MBSims Date 11-21-2010 14:07.Reference app.aws/forum/topic_show.pl?tid=26703 results for this questionWhat is the hardness of base metal?What is the hardness of base metal?base metal hardness is less than 200HV or more than 263HV,HAZ hardness is less than 200HV,weld hardness is more than 320HV.In addition,the contractor is not proposing any remedial measures where the base metal,HAZ or welds have hardness less than 180HV.ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values

INVESTIGATION ON THE INFLUENCE OF POST WELD

The above results are supported by hardness distribution measured across the weld and both HAZs.Hardness measurements are shown in Fig.20 where hardness of weld metal is ranged from 350 to 400 HV reflecting the martensitic structure of weld metal.The hardness is decreased slightly across HAZ of P91 until temperedHow many times can be weld a P91Apr 07,2003 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;It is currently a code case in ASME.The attractiveness of this material is that it does not in most cases require preheat or PWHT.In the as welded condition with no preheat,weld metal hardness has been shown to be between 268 and 313 HV (253 BHN - 298 BHN).Why is it that this is acceptable for T23 but P91 hardness should be substantially lower?How many times can be weld a P91Apr 07,2003 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;It is currently a code case in ASME.The attractiveness of this material is that it does not in most cases require preheat or PWHT.In the as welded condition with no preheat,weld metal hardness has been shown to be between 268 and 313 HV (253 BHN - 298 BHN).Why is it that this is acceptable for T23 but P91 hardness should be substantially lower?

Hardness testing of Welds - Weld Australia

2.MEASUREMENT OF HARDNESS The different types of hardness tests available for metals have been well documented elsewhere; in various Standards e.g.Reference 2 and websites References 3,4 and 5.Useful tables to convert one hardness reading to another are available in Reference 4.Hardness Limit of P9 heater tubesDec 05,2010 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;ashfaqanwer,the main problem is ASME does not help much with hardness values.B31.3 would tell you 241 HB Max for your material.B31.3 would tell you 241 HB Max for your material.ASTM will say 250 Max for P91 which is a P9 modified,but does not give a value for P9.Handling Nine-Chrome Steel in HRSGs Power EngineeringFeb 01,2006 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;Steam-Plant Industry Wrestles with Increased Use of P91/T91 and Other Advanced Alloys.By Robert Swanekamp,P.E.,Contributing Editor.Nine-percent chrome-moly steels (9Cr-1Mo) have been used

Guidelines to hardness testing - Hegewald Peschke

The preload is unchanging 98.07 N.The total test loads are (preload + additional load) 588.4 N; 980.7 N; 1,471 N.The measuring unit in standard Rockwell corresponds to 0.002 mm penetration.The hardness value increases with the hardness of the material,but at the same time the penetration difference between the preload and the total testing Guidelines to hardness testing - Hegewald PeschkeThe preload is unchanging 98.07 N.The total test loads are (preload + additional load) 588.4 N; 980.7 N; 1,471 N.The measuring unit in standard Rockwell corresponds to 0.002 mm penetration.The hardness value increases with the hardness of the material,but at the same time the penetration difference between the preload and the total testing Grade 91 Steel - an overview ScienceDirect TopicsAfter tempering heat treatment,hardness values are required for Gr.91 to be in the range of 190 Brinell hardness (HB)/200 Vickers hardness (HV) (93.4 Rockwell B hardness (HRB)) to 250HB/263HV (24.2 Rockwell C hardness (HRC)).4 The transmission electron microscope (TEM) microstructure of Gr.91 after normalizing and tempering consists of laths

Grade 91 Steel - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

After tempering heat treatment,hardness values are required for Gr.91 to be in the range of 190 Brinell hardness (HB)/200 Vickers hardness (HV) (93.4 Rockwell B hardness (HRB)) to 250HB/263HV (24.2 Rockwell C hardness (HRC)).4 The transmission electron microscope (TEM) microstructure of Gr.91 after normalizing and tempering consists of laths Failed Grade 91 Soft Pipe Bend - A Case Study The measured hardness values on the adjacent spools were in the acceptable range for Grade 91 piping,indicating the welding and post-weld heat treatment procedures were performed correctly.After bounding the extents of low surface hardness and swelling,through-thickness hardness testing was performed on the two window sections.Effects of Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT)A335 Gr.P91,were subjected to post weld heat treatment (PWHT) to improve mechanical properties and to reduce residual stress.We have measured the A c1 of weld metals for Gr.P91 steel,containing varying amounts of Mn+Ni,and have examined the effects of PWHT temperatures on the mechanical properties of each weld metal.The upper

Creep Crack Growth Properties of P91 Parent and Welded

The average value of n=10 is reported in for P91 material which allows using NSW-MOD model to predict its CCG behaviour (the value of n is reported to vary between 5 to 14 for the P91),however as it can be observed from the figure,although the there is a large scatter in P91 data scatter band from experiments,the prediction by NSW-MOD plain Complying with NACE Hardness Requirements - TWIIn addition to the ASME IX requirements,SP0472 requires butt welds and fillet welds to be qualified separately; although not mandatory,it would also be advisable to qualify separately single and multi-pass fillet welds.The hardness in a single pass fillet weld can easily exceed 300Hv,particularly when welding on thick steel,say over 25mm Complying with NACE Hardness Requirements - TWIIn addition to the ASME IX requirements,SP0472 requires butt welds and fillet welds to be qualified separately; although not mandatory,it would also be advisable to qualify separately single and multi-pass fillet welds.The hardness in a single pass fillet weld can easily exceed 300Hv,particularly when welding on thick steel,say over 25mm

Cited by 10Publish Year 2018Author Z.F.Peng,S.Liu,C.Yang,F.Y.Chen,F.F.PengWelding and PWHT of P91 Steels

New Rules,ASME IIA Minimum hardness criteria are being discussed for all P91 base metal product forms Maximum hardness limits exist New Proposal 190 HBW min.Documentation of Repairs for Castings 1.0 Ni + Mn MaxBrinell Hardness Values - ASTM (testing materials) Code Aug 06,2005 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;NACE incidates that the maximum hardness for P91 is 248BHN.However read artciles which allows maximum hardness value of 275BHN.Lower hardness could be 170BHN baseed on tensile strength.However it can not be verified what should be hardness for P91 material is still an issue.An approach to 570 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#176;C/105h creep rupture strength May 01,2020 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;The load applied to the Brinell hardness measurements was 29,420 N for 10s.Each sample was tested at least 3 times.The creep rupture tests at a varying stress level ranging from 95 to 220 MPa were carried out at 570 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#176;C on the P91 component specimens with a hardness value between 151 and 205HBW.

An approach to 570 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#176;C/105h creep rupture strength

May 01,2020 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;The load applied to the Brinell hardness measurements was 29,420 N for 10s.Each sample was tested at least 3 times.The creep rupture tests at a varying stress level ranging from 95 to 220 MPa were carried out at 570 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#176;C on the P91 component specimens with a hardness value between 151 and 205HBW.ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values Jun 11,2008 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values athomas236 (Mechanical) (OP) 23 May 08 11:45.Gentlemen,I am involved in a HRSG project in the Middle East that makes extensive use of ASME P911-1.5% Cr to P91 WPS Hardness limitatJul 07,2003 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;ASME II Part A specification SA 335 limits hardness of P91 base metal to 265 HV in paragraph 9.3.2.Client recommendation is to use ER80S-B2 or E8018-B2 butter on the P91 side,followed by a 1350F PWHT; weld out with 1.25% Chrome and PWHT again at 1100F.3.Construction Code is B31.1.This Code specifies a minimum PWHT of 1300F for the P11

1-1.5% Cr to P91 WPS Hardness limitat

Jul 07,2003 ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values#0183;ASME II Part A specification SA 335 limits hardness of P91 base metal to 265 HV in paragraph 9.3.2.Client recommendation is to use ER80S-B2 or E8018-B2 butter on the P91 side,followed by a 1350F PWHT; weld out with 1.25% Chrome and PWHT again at 1100F.3.Construction Code is B31.1.This Code specifies a minimum PWHT of 1300F for the P11 (PDF) Measurement of residual stresses in submerged arc For the first time,Rao and Kalyankar [14] conducted parametric study of SAW process on P91 steel to show their effects on weld bead shape and geometry,YS,UTS,hardness,etc.. results for this questionWhat is the metal hardness of an elbow?What is the metal hardness of an elbow?For the elbows,the measured base metal hardness are 153 to 210HV.The contractor is proposing to remove and re-NT all elbows with base metal hardness less than 180HV.ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values

results for this questionWhat is the hardness of a weld?What is the hardness of a weld?weld hardness is more than 320HV.In addition,the contractor is not proposing any remedial measures where the base metal,HAZ or welds have hardness less than 180HV.For the elbows,the measured base metal hardness are 153 to 210HV.The contractor is proposing to remove and re-NT all elbows with base metal hardness less than 180HV.ASME P91 hardness measurements and acceptable values results for this questionFeedbackFailed Grade 91 Soft Pipe Bend - A Case Study

The measured hardness values on the adjacent spools were in the acceptable range for Grade 91 piping,indicating the welding and post-weld heat treatment procedures were performed correctly.After bounding the extents of low surface hardness and swelling,through-thickness hardness testing was performed on the two window sections.

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